Mafia Island (“Chole Shamba”)
is part of the TANZANIAN ZANZIBAR ARCHIPELAGO, together with UNGUJA , PEMBA AND LATHAM ISLANDS. As one of the six districts of the PWANI REGION , Mafia Island is governed from the mainland, not from the semi-autonomous region of ZANZIBAR, of which it has never been considered to be a part.
According to the 2002 Tanzania census, the population of the Mafia District was 40,801.The economy is based on fishing, subsistence agriculture and the market in Kilindoni .
The island attracts some tourists, mainly adventure scuba divers , game fisherman, and people wanting relaxation.
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